Add your seminar reports to this blog

Add your civil engineering seminar reports to the top civil engg seminar blog and let the world see it. Contact for more details and send your report to:
Moreover, you can get paid when the pageviews of your report reach a threshold limit.

Wednesday, January 11, 2017





Page 1      


            Modern methods of construction are about better products and processes. They aim to improve business efficiency, quality, customer satisfaction, environmental performance, sustainability and the predictability of delivery timescales. Modern methods of construction are, therefore, more broadly based than a particular focus on product.

            They engage people and process to seek improvement in the delivery and performance of construction, modern methods of construction are about better products and processes. They aim to improve business efficiency, quality, customer satisfaction, environmental performance, sustainability and the predictability of delivery timescales. Modern methods of construction are, therefore, more broadly based than a particular focus on product. They engage people and process to seek improvement in the delivery and performance of construction

            With developments in technology, general construction knowledge and manufacturing processes, Modern construction technology have evolved from the more conventional methods to a large extent. Modern construction technology can be defined as those that provide greater efficiency in the construction process, resulting in increased production, better quality, in less time and with less waste, so reducing the environmental impact. MMC is a process to produce more, better quality homes in less time.

            Modern construction technology is a collective term used to describe a number of construction methods. The methods being introduced into the world house building differ significantly from so-called conventional construction methods such as brick and block.

            In this report, we use the term MMC. This is because this term is increasingly being used and because it also includes several important new types of construction methods that involve some element of fabrication on site.

            Advanced technologies in housing construction are not used as frequently as the more standard construction technologies, which involve the use of masonry, timber, and concrete. However, as with other innovations, it is expected that over time these newer technologies will gain wider acceptance. For purposes of the World Housing Encyclopedia, advanced technologies include seismic isolation and passive-energy dissipation devices.

            MMC are about better products and processes. They aim to improve business efficiency, quality, customer satisfaction, environmental performance, sustainability and the predictability of delivery timescales. Modern methods of construction are, therefore, more broadly based than a particular focus on product. They engage people and process to seek improvement in the delivery and performance of construction.




2.1. Quicker on site build time/shorter programmes/reduced preliminaries:
            With MMC, much of the work is removed from the site and it is therefore possible to execute various activities of the project concurrently or even before the project has commenced on site. This reduces the projects construction time as the building or elements of the building can be manufactured off site while the ground and site works are taking place. MMC leads to a reduction in trades on site and a shorter construction programme which in turn leads to reduced preliminaries, overheads and a quicker return on investment for the client.

2.2. Reduced waste and better waste management:
            As production is often executed in a factory controlled environment, the waste stream can be easier to manage. Exact quantities of materials can be purchased, materials can be used more efficiently and because materials are properly stored, breakages and damage are less likely to occur. Furthermore any un-used materials can be easily collected, re-used or recycled contributing to less waste. Constant monitoring also takes place within a production plant allowing new waste management strategies to be implemented without difficulty, if necessary. Waste reduction is a very significant advantage as waste from construction is one of the principle waste streams to landfills and it has been proven that a high percentage of materials delivered to site are never even used and go straight into the waste cycle.

2.3. Reduction in defects and increased quality control:
            As you can imagine, a building site in Ireland, fully exposed to our rainy and windy climate is not exactly the perfect working environment for high quality workmanship. 

            Construction work exposed to the elements of wind and rain proves more difficult to monitor with regard to quality control. Human error is also another significant factor which deters the achievement of high quality construction as it can prove difficult to work in extreme weather conditions.

            Factory based constructions forms, engage better and safer working conditions with no interference by the Irish climate and therefore a very high standard of quality control can be achieved which includes testing, trials, checks and re-checks. For more reasons than one, factory based construction provides better working conditions than a building site and in turn produces better quality too.

2.4. Increased Health & Safety: 
            Construction work carried out in a factory controlled environment is without doubt a safer working environment for all trades. Safety controls are implemented and monitored and safe working conditions are easier to meet and maintain. With off-site construction there is a significant reduction in the number of trades working on site and this proves more manageable from a health and safety perspective. Construction work on site can incorporate some very dangerous activities and in turn lead to a large number of causalities and/or fatal injuries. Construction is among the largest number of fatal injuries between all the main industries in Ireland. Statistics from 2002 to 2009 (as seen in Appendix A) show that the construction sector has been either the first or second largest contributor to fatal injuries in the past 8 years. 

2.5. Social benefits and reduced local impacts:
            MMC’s and in particular off-site construction, allow local communities to benefit from the process of manufacturing away from site. The main advantage to communities is that there is much less traffic and smaller on site work forces adding to traffic congestion in the area. Furthermore due to speedier on-site programmes, noise and pollution levels will decrease and the locality surrounding the site will be disrupted for a far shorter period of time.

            Construction sites are only temporary employment locations and offer little or no amenities for the local communities whereas manufacturing facilities very often provide long term social services and economic benefits for the surrounding community. Manufacturing facilities are also more likely to invest in education and training for their workforce and develop a highly trained local workforce within their facility.

2.6. Greater efficiency in the use of resources and transport
            Over the years it has been noted that the use of labour, plant and materials on building sites is extremely inefficient as is not the case with factory based activities which are kept under extreme scrutiny, monitored and controlled. Re-cycling and re-using of materials is also more difficult to enforce on a building site but is easily implemented in a factory based environment. On another note, monitoring of transport patterns and schedules can be very difficult on construction sites especially if the site is condensed and compact. With off-site MMC the number of deliveries direct to the building site is reduced and deliveries to factories can be planned and controlled so that full loads can be used and transport costs are kept to a minimum. On the other hand, transport of prefabricated or modular buildings to site must be carefully planned and heavy plant and equipment necessary for off-loading and erection requires careful site management and consideration.


3.1. Volumetric Construction
            Three dimensional units produced in a factory fully fitted out and dropped onto foundations to form a structure e.g. bathroom or kitchen PODS.
Fig 3.1 Volumetric Construction

3.2. Panelised construction
            Units produced in a factory and assembled into a three-dimensional structure on site e.g. concrete wall panels, structural insulated panels (SIPS), curtain walling etc.

Fig 3.2 Panellised construction

3.3. Hybrid construction 
            Volumetric construction integrated with panelised construction e.g. kitchen pod as volumetric unit with the rest of the dwelling constructed using panels.

Fig 3.3 Hybrid construction




4.1. Precast Floor Slabs:
            For this project it is proposed to use pre-stressed wide slab as will span up to 8m simply supported. This is sufficient for the development as the maximum floor span is around five and a half meters. Other options are Filigree slabs which can span 5.5 m simply supported but this type of slab is not as widely used in the industry. Hollow core flooring is another alternative but this is only really necessary for spans greater that 8 m and up to 16.5 m and the building is in excess of seven or eight floors and a lighter weight option is required. It will be necessary to prop the floor at 600 centres using acro type props with timber girders running horizontally from prop to prop.
            For this structure, the proposed wide slab will have a 100 mm slab depth and a width of 2400 mm as standard will be used where possible. This shallow floor will give maximum floor-to-floor height resulting in no loss of space. It will also provide a smooth soffit finish, which can be used as a finished surface in areas where suspended ceilings are not specified i.e. the apartments. The floor slab will sit approx 70 mm into the wall panel and the slabs will also be lifted in by crane via projecting lifting hooks on the surface of the slab. A 125 mm screed over the 100 mm wide slab will be sufficient and can incorporate services into the floor if necessary. It may be possible to cast up stands on the precast walls instead of shuttering the perimeter for screeding. A393 mesh along with tie steel will be placed on the slab and a 35-40 N structural screed will be poured over this. The perimeter of the floor, opens, stairwells etc will have to be shuttered to house the screed and prevent spillages. The concrete will be pumped in using a concrete pump and all floors will receive a power float finish.
            The floors will be connected to the wall panels via U bars which are wrapped around the treaded bar projecting from the panel to connect the wall directly above.  Handrail will also be necessary around the perimeter and large opens. There will be a plastic leg on the handrail posts that can be left in the screed afterwards. The perimeter handrail will be moved up floor by floor as screeding progresses but handrail around opens must remain until it is safe to remove.

Fig 4.1 Precast Floor Slabs
4.2 Precast Stairs:
            It is proposed to use precast stairs from basement to fourth floor. The stairs are prefabricated off site and are cast in a steel mould for manufacture. The use of precast stairs means that while they can be erected by crane with the wall and floor panels, they also allow access up the building for the precast crew as the building progresses. 

Fig 4.2 Precast Stairs
4.3 Internal Finishes:
            It is also proposed that a thin coat spray on plaster system will be used on the rough side of the precast walls and also on the ceilings. The material recommended for this is a thin spray on plaster known as Alltek which is supplied by International Coating Products (ICP) and who many suppliers and applicators across Ireland, the United Kingdom and Europe. The Alltek product is packaged in standard 25kg bags and comes in the form of a white powder which comes from fine graded marble. Alltek is applied in two coats and is suitable to be sprayed onto fair faced concrete surfaces, gypsum boards, smooth plastered surfaces etc. The Alltek Red Label can also be sprayed over the Alltek Blue Course plaster which is used on rough surfaces.
            Alltek also supply dry fillers used to fill joints in panels, the filler is just mixed with water on site and applied to the joint. Once the joints are dried and sanded down, the walls are then ready to receive the plaster spray coat. The Alltek red label is poured into the spray machine and the applicator then commences spraying the Alltek onto the prefilled surface. The second coat of spray can only be applied once the first has fully dried out. Alltek can be applied in a flat or textured finish and in several pastel shade thus reducing painting and decorating costs. Between 200-300 m2 of two coat Alltek application can be achieved per day.


            It is my belief as the contractor that by adopting the above mentioned modern methods of construction on the South Cumberland Development we can significantly reduce the program duration for this project. Based on figures from one precast manufacturer, Alcrete Ltd, 1450m2 of precast walls can be produced in their factory in just one week. As can be seen from the below chart, this is more walls that needed for the entire development. Hence production of precast walls off-site will automatically reduce the program and even taking into account the lead in time required by the manufacturer, signification time savings can be achieved here. It must also be noted that lead in times for precast manufacturers has reduced significantly due to lack of workload in this economic downturn.
            Further reductions in program duration can be achieved through erection on site of the precast elements. Further figures from Alcrete show that 325 m2 of double walls and 450 m2 of solid walls can be erected per week by a 5 man crew. In addition, 280 m2 of wide slab can be erected per day by a 4 man crew thus showing how the frame can be erected in just a number of weeks. 
Furthermore with no scaffolding, drying out time, erection or dismantling of shutters/pans etc needed, the precast frame is less weather dependent than in-situ construction forms and is therefore less likely to experience delays or set backs on site. Once erection of the frame has been completed additional time savings can also be achieved in the finishes such as plastering works, mechanical and electrical works, installation of cladding etc.




6.1 Concrete walls and floors
            Concrete walls is an eclectic category with options for everything: seat walls; decorative interior or exterior finishes; sound walls that abut a freeway; retaining walls to hold back the earth; to the very walls that comprise the exterior of a home. Concrete has become the new flooring material of choice for designers and homeowners across the United States. Concrete floors are popping up in retail stores, trendy restaurants, offices, and homes everywhere. Whether it's acid-stained, painted, overlays, micro toppings, radiant floors, or a unique personal floor, concrete floors offer a range unlike any other material. Concrete flooring, sometimes referred to as cement flooring, no longer has to be gray and boring. Now coloring concrete or applying textures, patterns, saw cuts, etc., can bring new life to this traditional substrate.
            One of the major benefits of concrete floors is their affordability compared to other flooring options. Installing a decorative concrete floor can be quite cost-effective, particularly if you already have a concrete slab that’s ready for staining, polishing or application of a coating or overlay. A basic concrete floor will carry a comparable price tag to linoleum, vinyl, ceramic tile or carpet. While a more complex concrete floor design will run you about the same or slightly less than marble, granite, slate, or high-end wood. Furthermore, the lifetime cost of a concrete floor is very low because they require little upkeep and last for years.
            A second thing that attracts business and homeowners to concrete flooring is its ease of maintenance. When properly sealed, concrete floors can be cleaned with a quick pass of a dust mop. For an occasional deep clean a neutral cleaner and water can be used. The frequency of maintenance is dependent on the amount of traffic the floor receives. Restaurants and businesses with considerable foot traffic may want to use a sacrificial floor wax in addition to a sealer to further protect from abrasion.
            Here are some additional benefits of concrete floors according to Barbara Sargent of Kemiko Concrete Floor Stains:
They enhance the integrity of architect's designs.
They are easy to change, especially if you sell your home; the next owner can place carpet or wood on top of the concrete slab.
They are great in regions with a lot of sand or snow.
They are a good alternative to carpet if you have allergies.

Fig 6.1 Concrete wall
6.2 Precast Cladding Panels
            Precast concrete panels are reinforced concrete units available in a wide range of mixes, colours and finishes. Finishes can include acid-etched, smooth or coarse ground, grit or sand-blasted, rubbed or polished. Mixes designed to resemble natural stone can also be produced. Highly articulated designs can be accommodated by the mouldable concrete mix.
Faster programme times - not affected by weather or labour shortages.
Improves buildability.
Early enclosure of dry envelope enables follow-on trades to start sooner.
Produces a high standard of workmanship in factory conditions - reduces potential for accidents, addresses on-site skill shortage.
Has a high quality finish that can be left exposed - concrete's thermal properties can 
be exploited in low-energy buildings

Fig 6.2 ACP Cladding
6.3 Precast Flat Panel System
            Floor and wall units are produced off-site in a factory and erected on-site to form robust structures, ideal for all repetitive cellular projects. Panels can include services, windows, doors and finishes. Building envelope panels with factory fitted insulation and decorative cladding can also be used as load-bearing elements. This offers factory quality and accuracy, together with speed of erection on-site

Fig 6.3 Panel system
6.4 Volumetric modules
            3D Volumetric construction (also known as modular construction) involves the production of three-dimensional units in controlled factory conditions prior to transportation to site.
            Modules can be brought to site in a variety of forms, ranging from a basic structure to one with all internal and external finishes and services installed, all ready for assembly. The casting of modules uses the benefits of factory conditions to create service-intensive units where a high degree of repetition and a need for rapid assembly on-site make its use highly desirable.

Fig 6.4 Volumetric Module
6.5 Twin Wall Technology
            Twin wall technology is a walling system that combines the speed of erection and quality of precast concrete with the structural integrity of in-situ concrete to provide a hybrid solution. The prefabricated panels comprise two slabs separated and connected by cast-in lattice girders. The units are placed, temporarily propped, then joined by reinforcing and concreting the cavity on site. Twin wall is usually employed in association with precast flooring systems.
            The panels are manufactured to exacting tolerances, have a high quality finish, and can incorporate cast-in cable ducts, electrical boxes and service ports. Installation rates are of up to 100m2 per hour. Twin wall has excellent inherent fire resistance and acoustic performance.

Fig 6.5 Twin Wall Technology
6.6 Flat Slabs
            Flat slabs are highly versatile elements widely used in construction, providing minimum depth, fast construction and allowing flexible column grids. Because this is one of the most common forms of construction, all construct members and many other concrete frame contractors can undertake this work. Flat slabs are particularly appropriate for areas where tops of partitions need to be sealed to the slab soffit for acoustic or fire reasons. Flat slabs are considered to be faster and more economic than other forms of construction, as partition heads do not need to be cut around down stand beams or ribs.
            Flat slabs can be designed with a good surface finish to the soffit, allowing exposed soffits to be used. This allows exploitation of the building’s thermal mass in the design of heating, ventilation and cooling requirements, increasing energy efficiency. Flat slabs provide the most flexible arrangements for services distribution as services do not have to divert around structural elements.

Fig 6.6 Flat Slab
6.7 Thin Joint Masonry
            In masonry, mortar joints are the spaces between bricks, concrete blocks, or glass blocks that are filled with mortar or grout. Mortar joints can be made in a series of different fashions, but the most common ones are raked, grapevine, extruded, concave, V, struck, flush, weathered and beaded.
In order to produce a mortar joint, the mason must use one of several types of jointers (slickers), rakes, or beaders. These tools are run through the grout in between the building material before the grout is solid and create the desired outcome the mason seeks
            Thin joint block work (thin joint masonry) is a fast, clean, accurate system for construction using autoclaved aerated concrete blocks of close dimensional tolerance with 2mm-3mm mortar joints. Thin layer mortar is a pre-mixed cement-based product that only requires the addition of water to make an easily-applied mortar. The benefits offered by thin layer mortars are provided by a system with many of the characteristics of traditional block work construction. 

Fig 6.7 Thin Joint Masonry
6.8 Concrete Formwork
            Formwork is a structure, usually temporary, used to contain poured concrete and to mould it to the required dimensions and support until it is able to support itself. It consists primarily of the face contact material and the bearers that directly support the face contact material. Formwork systems used for concrete frame construction have continued to develop significantly since the early 1990s. The major innovations have focused on on-site efficiency of production, health and safety, and environmental issues, driving the concrete construction industry towards ever-increasing efficiency. Different formwork systems provide a wide range of concrete construction solutions that can be chosen to suit the needs of a particular development.  
            Traditional formwork for concrete construction normally consisted of bespoke solutions requiring skilled craftsmen. This type of formwork often had poor safety features and gave slow rates of construction on-site and huge levels of waste.
The main types of formwork systems in use now are:
Table form/flying form
System column formwork
Horizontal panel
Slip form
Tunnel form
            The modern formwork systems listed above are mostly modular, which are designed for speed and efficiency. They are designed to provide increased accuracy and minimize waste in construction and most have enhanced health and safety features built-in.

Fig 6.8 Concrete Formwork
6.9 Precast Foundation
            Precast concrete foundation and wall panels can take many forms. Some consist of steel-reinforced concrete ribs that run vertically and horizontally in the panels. Others are solid precast concrete panels. Panels are precast and cured in a controlled factory environment so weather delays can be avoided. A typical panelized foundation can be erected in four to five hours, without the need to place concrete on site for the foundation. The result is a foundation that can be installed in any climate zone in one sixth of the time needed for a formed concrete wall.
            Some manufacturers cast the concrete against foam insulation that provides the form during manufacture and added R-value in the wall. Panels range in size from 2'-12' in width by 8' - 12' in height and are typically installed with a crane on top of 4" to 6" of compacted stone. The stone facilitates sub-slab drainage and adequately carries and transfers the load from the foundation wall. Panel connections consist of bolts and sealant. The foundation can be backfilled as soon as it is braced per manufacturer's specifications.
            The controlled temperature of the processing plant allows the manufacturer to work with concrete admixtures that focus on ultimate strength rather than cure time and temperature. Manufacturers are able to produce mixes that harden to 5,000 psi, which is stronger than concrete block or concrete walls formed and cast in the field. Better control of the concrete mixture and curing environment allows the use of low water/cement ratios that results in a dense material that prevents water penetration.
Fig 6.9 Precast Foundation


            As can be seen through-out the above report, the use of a precast frame and a thin coat spray on plaster finish on this development can produce significant reductions on the overall construction programme while also not only maintaining, but excelling the standards set out in the original specification. 
            The precast frame exceeds specification as it will be 60N concrete and manufactured to a very high specification in a factory controlled environment. Tight factory production control ensures that the re-enforcement is located accurately and the panels are made to tight dimensional tolerances. Structural connections are also accurate which assists in the accurate installation of cladding, windows and other elements thereafter. Furthermore precast concrete improves structural efficiency as longer spans and shallower construction depths can be obtained using prestressed floors and/or beams. Most importantly, there will be no additional work created for the design team as the precast manufacturer produces their own in-house precast drawings for approval by the architect thus design costs do not change or increase.
            The limitations of the topic “Modern Construction Technology” is very enormous and massive. Therefore, it not possible to covers all the topic and chapters in this report. Therefore , this report has limited topics related to “Modern Construction Technology” which are as follows:-
1. Concrete Walls and Floors.
2. Precast Cladding Panels.
3. Precast Flat Panel System.
4. Volumetric Modules.
5. Twin Wall Technology.
6. Flat slabs.
7. Thin Joint Masonry.
8. Concrete Formwork.
9. Precast Foundation.
            The benefits of modern methods of construction are too positive to be ignored.. Modern methods of construction can provide large numbers of sustainable, well-designed homes in a short period of time. Modern methods of construction also afford an opportunity to overcome the skills shortage in the construction industry through factory production.. Modern methods of construction will be a key tool in addressing this challenge and should be viewed as an opportunity for the house building sector to increase capacity and choice in the housing market.Modern construction technology have evolved from the more conventional methods to a large extent. Modern construction technology is those that provide greater efficiency in the construction process, resulting in increased production, better quality, in less time and with less waste, so reducing the environmental impact. Modern construction technology is a process to produce more, better quality homes in less time.

1. Modern methods of constructions and their components (Lenka Kyjaková , Tomáš Mandičák  & Peter Mesároš)
2. Modern methods of construction: a solution for an industry characterized by uncertainty (Ylva Sardén1 And Susanne Engström)
3. Study on modern methods of constructions used in Srilanka H.M.M.Uthpala1, T.Ramachandra.
4. Modern methods for cost management in construction enterprises Peter Mesároš, Tomáš Mandičák, Jozef Selín
5. Acceptance theories of innovation and  modern methods in construction industry Daniela Ma˘Ckov´ A, Tom´A˘S Mandi˘C´Ak




The British Engineering Company had found the revolutionary material, concrete cloth. It’s a recent innovation in the concrete sector.The technology was first found for emergency shelters, application to military world and later on applied to commercial construction work.

The British Army used the method of reinforcing sand bag for defence; this reduces the degradation of sandbags (figure given below) in extreme climates of Afghanistan, where the combination of wind, sand and extreme temperature affects the sandbags for a frequent repair. Moreover it was fireproof.
They are made compact to work even in remote areas by manufacturing them in a compact size (10 m or 33 ft), made them easy to handle without any of the heavy lifting equipment’s or planting machinery’s. That forms a biggest advantage when work in remote area where the helicopter is the only way to mode of transport.
The fibers used in them forms a reinforcing matrix within the concrete cloth. Thus when impacted this property of fibers used helps to serve the structural integrity of concrete. A ballistic attack may pass through them, but crack propagation is limited, as a result, the sandbags remain safe inside the concrete shell.
In January 2008, a notable amount of concrete cloths are laid in the frontline in Afghanistan to analyze the field usage and the performance which is satisfactory for the U.K army.

Fig.2.1.1 CC as reinforcing sandbags

The research of concrete clothes is to develop rapid hardening shelters only using the water and air. Concrete Canvas Shelters have two major advantages over conventional tented shelter:
1. Operational: It enables a hardened structure from day one of an operation. They provide much better environmental protection, increased security and vastly improved medical capability.
2. Financial: They have a design life of over 10 years, whereas tents wear out rapidly and must then be replaced. They are a one stop solution, saving effort and cost over the lifetime of medium to long term operations.

The key was the use of inflation to create a surface that was optimized for compressive loading. This allowed thin-walled concrete structures to be formed that are both robust and lightweight.
The University ofBath in Bath, UK, has conducted finite element analysis of the shelters, showing that the structures can withstand a high distributed compressive load.

Concrete Canvas Shelters (CCS) are supplied in polyethylene, airtight, water proof, rot proof sacks within ISPM15 heat treated timber/ply panel crates.
 CCS are rapidly deployable structures that can be deployed by two people in less than 24 hours. There are two shelter sizes available, the CCS25 and the CCS50 with respective deployed areas of 25 and 50sqm.A CCS50 will require a vehicle or winch to aid with the unfolding of the shelter prior to inflation. Each shelter is provided with the ground pegs required for inflation. CCS are prefabricated structures consisting of Concrete Canvas fixed to an inflatable inner with integral steel door sets at each end. The shelter is deployed in the following four stages:

2.2.1 a. Delivery
 The shelter is supplied folded and sealed in a sack. The 16 m2 variant is light enough to transport in a pickup truck or light aircraft.

2.2.1 b. Inflation
Once delivered, an electric fan is activated to inflate the inner PVC liner and lift the structure until it is self-supporting.

2.2.1 c.  Hydration
The shelter is sprayed with water. Hydration is aided by the fiber matrix, which wicks water into the mixture  
2.2.1 d. Setting
The Concrete Cloth cures inthe shape of the inflated inner PVC liner. The structure is ready to use 24 hours later.
Access holes allow the installation of services such as water, power, air conditioning, and heating units. The shelters have excellent thermal properties and protection against blasts, and small arms fire. A shelter using CC is shown in figure.

Fig. 2.2.1 CC as deployable shelter


Very high early strength is a fundamental characteristic of concrete cloth.  The first crack strength of CC is attributed to two aspects: matrix strength and fiber bridging effect. The first crack strength σfc is defined as the applied tensile stress at which a matrix crack spreads throughout the cross section of the sample under tension. The maximum bridging stress σB is defined as the maximum stress that bridging fibers can transfer across the crack of specimen.
 Typical strengths and physical characteristics are as follows:
Compressive testing
The test is based on ASTM C473-07.By the test the 7 day minimum compressive strength is equal to 38 MPa
Bending test:
This tests based on ASTM C-1185. The test is used to determine the ability of material to resist the bending. The 7 day minimum bending stress is equal to 3.3 MPa and 7 day modulus minimum is equal to 180 MPa.
Abrasion Resistance:
ASTM C1353-8 is the standard test method to determine abrasion resistance of the material. CC lost 60% less weight than marble over 1000 cycles.
Resistance to imposed loads on vehicle traffic areas:
EN 1991-1-1:2002 is the standard testing method (for CC8&CC13 only). The gross weight of two axle vehicle should be between 30 to 160 kN and the uniformly distributed load should not exceed 5kN/sq.m
CBR puncture resistance:
Test is based on EN ISO 12236:2007. The test is used for CC8& CC13. The minimum push-through force is equal to 2.69 kN and the maximum deflection at peak is 38 mm. 

Setting time 
The time between the end of mixing and initial set of a material made with a hydraulic binder or the hydraulic binder itself. The initial setting time should be greater than or equal to 120 minutes and the final setting time is greater than or equal to 240 minutes. Concrete canvas will achieve 70-80% strength in 24 hours after hydration.
The dry density of Concrete Cloth before hydration is 1500 kg/cc Upon Complete hydration the density increases 30-35% to a range of about 1950-2025 kg/cc.
Concrete Canvas is available in 3-thicknesses; CC5, CC8 & CC13, which are 5, 8 & 13 mm thick respectively. There is theoretically no limit to the thickness of the fabric, although it will generally be limited by the manufacturing techniques used to produce it. A typical thickness would be between 2 and 15mm. One important consideration limiting the thickness of the material is the ability of the liquid to penetrate through the interior of the settable material before the outer portions of the settable material is set. A further limitation on the thickness comes from the increased Weight of the fabric with increased thickness and if it is too thick, the faces may not be able to support the Weight of the settable material within the fabric. 




Concrete cloth can be hydrated using saline or non-saline water. The minimum ratio of water to Concrete Cloth is 1:2 by weight. It cannot be over hydrated so an excess is recommended. The recommended methods are: In a hot/arid environment, re-wet the material 2 - 4 hours after the initial hydration.
Immerse Concrete cloth in water for a minimum of 90 seconds.
Spray the dry Concrete cloth with water until it is saturated. Do not use a direct jet of pressurized water as this may wash a channel in the material and create a weakened area.
It is bifurcated into four steps 

4.1. Unpacking
       At the time of installation, CC comes in two forms, Bulk roles or Batched roles (shown in figure)which are flexible in nature.CC is available in two standard roll sizes; bulk rolls or smaller batched, portable rolls the quantity per roll differs between the CC types. Bulk rolls weigh about 1.7 Tons (~3400 lbs.) and are supplied on 6 inch cardboard tubes which can be hung from a spreader beam and unrolled using suitable equipment (see picture below). Bulk rolls provide the fastest method of laying CC and have the additional advantage of reducing the number of joints required. 
Batched rolls are supplied on 3 inch inner diameter cardboard cores with carry handles, and can be easily handled by 2 to 4 people. All CC thicknesses can be supplied batched to custom lengths for an additional charge. Bulk rolls are individually wrapped and palletized. All CC rolls are provided with a basic hydration guide placed within the packaging.CC batched rolls are individually wrapped in airtight packaging and palletized. 10 batched rolls fit on a standard 4 x 4 pallet. CC13 is not supplied in a standard batch roll size.

FIG.4.1.1 Batch rolls
(Source: www.concrete

FIG.4.1.2 Bulk rolls
(Source: www.concrete

4.2. Storages
         CC should be stored in dry conditions away from direct sunlight and in the manufacturers sealed packaging. If stored correctly CC has a shelf life of 24 months. If stored for longer CC may remain usable in many instances.

4.3. Cutting and Fastening
         The cloth is laid on the point of application, cut into proper size and shape, and fastened to the place using staples, Nails and screws.CC A snap off type disposable blade is the most suitable tool for cutting CC before it is hydrated or set. When cutting dry CC, a 3/4 allowance should be left from the cut edge due to lost fill. This can be reduced by wetting the CC prior to cutting. Set CC can be cut as with conventional concrete, with angle grinders, construction disc cutters or tile cutters. CC can also be cut using handheld self-sharpening powered disc cutters. CC sheets in all three thicknesses can also be water cut to a fine resolution. There are a large number of mechanical fasteners that are suitable for use with Concrete Cloth. Some of these fasteners can be used in conjunction with the non-mechanical joining methods described later in this guide to improve the mechanical strength or water proofing properties of joints. 
           The versatility of CC means that a wide range of manual, electric or gas powered staplers are suitable for attaching CC to soft substrates such as wooden boarding for building cladding. Commercially available hand staplers are suitable for fixing 2 layers of CC together where a small amount of compression force is required - such as with the simple overlap joint described in the CCNon- Mechanical Fastening Techniques section of this brochure. Standard nails can be used to attach CC. Alternatively, a power tool such as the Hilti nail gun, provides a quick and effective method of securing CC to hard surfaces such as concrete or rock. This may be appropriate where CC is being used to recondition an existing concrete surface or for spall lining in mining applications. It is important to ensure that the nail is used with at least a 1/2 washer to ensure the head does not penetrate through the surface of the Cloth. CC fastening using standard nails and electric stapler can be seen in figure given below.

FIG. 4.3.1 CC Fastening using standard nails
(Source: www.concrete

FIG. 4.3.2 CC Fastening using electric stapler
(Source: www.concrete

4.4. Hydrating

After fastening of CC to desired place, it only needs to be hydrated for its final hardening. It is designed in such a way that, it cannot be over hydrated. Only in 24 hours Concrete cloth is ready to serve its purpose.


Concrete cloth is available in two standard roll sizes; bulk rolls or smaller batched rolls. Bulk rolls provide the fastest method of laying Concrete cloth and have the additional advantage of reducing the number of joints required.
The shelter is supplied folded and sealed in a sack. The 16 m2 variant is light enough to transport in a pickup truck or light aircraft.
There are 3 Concrete cloth types available with the following indicative specifications

5.1. ROAD
Concrete Canvas (CC) provides a durable water management and erosion control solution for new and existing road infrastructure projects. Some specific examples of applications are:
 Ditch Lining 
Slope Protection 
 Outfall Protection 
CC has quickly gained market acceptance in the civil engineering sector as a cost effective alternative to conventional concrete in ditch lining and slope protection applications.
The speed of installation minimizes traffic disruption and reduces the risks associated with roadside work. CC ditches prevent weed growth and erosion, reducing the maintenance costs associated with unlined ditches, but will naturally ‘green’ over time, helping it blend into the environment.

Existing users of CC in the Rail sector include:
 UK Highways Agency
 Enterprise Mouchel, UK
 Skanska Balfour, UK
Costain, UK

5.2. RAIL
Concrete Canvas (CC) has been used in the rail sector since 2009 and is rapidly establishing itself as the construction material of choice with network providers around the world. Some specific examples of applications are:
 Ditch Lining 
 Slope Protection 
The speed and ease of installation means that CC is well suited to time-critical track-side work, vastly reducing line possessions and overall project costs. Eliminating issues associated with rebound from shotcrete means slope protection work can continue without line closures. 
The resulting reduction in staffing levels and plant requirement has obvious safety benefits for contractors.
Existing users of CC in the Rail sector include:
 UK Network Rail
Canada National Rail
ADIF, Spain

Concrete Canvas (CC) is increasingly being used by utilities such as power, waterworks, landfill and hydro-electric companies. Some specific examples of applications are:
 Ditch Lining 
 Slope Protection 
 Pipe Protection 
 Cable Covering 
CC is increasingly being used as slope protection on sites with sensitive infrastructure such as power stations.
Unlike shotcrete, CC produces no back spray, debris or rebound, eliminating the need for site closures or costly clean-up operations post-installation. Concrete Canvas (CC) can also be used as practical, simple to install coating for pipeline or cable protection.
Existing users of CC in the Utility sector include:
Iberdrola, Qatar
 Duncan Mackay & Sons, UK
Stornaway Council, UK

Concrete Canvas (CC) has been used on a large range of projects for national governments, public works, councils and local authorities. Some specific examples of applications are:
 Gabion Reinforcement
Ditch Lining
 Slope Protection
CC has an expected design life of over 50 years and has more than 200 cycles of freeze-thaw testing.
The concrete used within CC is extremely hard wearing and has twice the wear resistance of OPC; as well as excellent resistance to chemical attack and UV degradation.
Existing users of CC in the Municipal sector include:
Caerphilly Council, UK
Ras Al Kaimiah, UAE
 Far North Council, New Zealand
Rother Council, UK

Concrete Canvas (CC) is being used extensively on large-scale mining projects around the world with customers in South Africa, Canada, Chile, Australia and the UK. Some specific examples of applications are:
 Ditch Lining 
 Vent Walls
 Slope Protection

CC cannot be over-hydrated and there is no need for mixing, measuring or compacting on site.CC is well suited to use in extreme environments and has been used installed in environments with sub-zero temperatures such as Northern BC in Canada and at 4000m altitude in the Chilean Andes.
Existing users of CC in the Mining sector include:
 Vale, Canada
Barrick, Chile
 British Gypsum, UK
 Coal Authority, UK

5.6. AGRO
Concrete Canvas (CC) is well suited to agricultural applications where water management and erosion control are key. Some specific examples of applications are:
 Ditch Lining
 Slope Protection
CC also has a low alkaline reserve, a low washout rate and a low carbon footprint, ensuring minimal impact on the environment.
CC can be used to reline existing concrete infrastructure in fisheries, canals or irrigation ditches, allowing time-critical remediation work to be completed quickly and easily.
 Mendez Soluciones, Chile
ConcesiónSabana De Occidente, Colombia
OranjeRiet Water Users Association, South Africa
 OSEPA Confed. Hidrografica del Ebro, Spain

Concrete Canvas (CC) is increasingly being used by oil and gas companies around the world for a wide range of containment, erosion control and water management applications. Some specific examples of applications are:
 Bund Lining
 Pipe Protection
 Ditch Lining 

CC is typically 10 times faster to install than conventional concrete solutions, reducing plant and personnel on site and consequently improving site safety.  
CC can also be supplied in batched rolls allowing work to be done in areas with limited access.
Existing users of CC in the Petrochem sector include:
 Phillips 66, UK
Petrobras, Brazil
 Pacific Rubiales, Colombia
 Shell, UK

Concrete Canvas (CC) has been used by a huge variety of designers, architects and artists. From furniture to conceptual fitness apparatus, sculptures to art installations, CC’s flexibility, durability, ease of use and fabric-like aesthetic has led to it being used in projects worldwide. Some specific examples of applications are:
Pre-hydrated CC can be cut using hand tools, and the material can be fixed to itself or other surfaces in many different ways.
Set CC can be cut and drilled as with conventional concrete, using angle grinders, construction disc cutters or high-quality tile cutters. It can also be water cut to a fine resolution. CC has excellent drape characteristics, allowing the material to conform to complex shapes, and the fiber surface of CC can be easily painted once set using standard exterior masonry paint.
Existing users of CC in the Design sector include:
Wolfson Design
 David Booth
 Florian Schmid
 Swedish Ninja