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Wednesday, January 11, 2017

CONCRETE CLOTH (Page 4)


CHAPTER-6
APPLICATIONS OF CONCRETE CLOTH

6.1. DITCH LINING
 Fig 6.1 Ditch lining
(Source: www.concrete canvas.co.uk)

              Concrete cloth can be rapidly unrolled to form ditch or tank lining. It is significantly quicker and less expensive to install than conventional concrete ditch lining and requires no specialist plant equipment. Traditionally, the most common renovations were toreplace smaller canals with pipelines and line larger canals with concrete. But lining canals with concrete is expensive and requires significant upkeep.
             Concrete Cloth is typically 10 times faster to install than conventional concrete solutions, with installation speeds of up to 200sqm/hr.
Less time required on site, less vehicle movements, manual handling issues associated with slab lining are eliminated.CC5 and CC8 are available in 60kg and 70kg man-portable batched rolls.
Concrete Canvas (CC) can be used to rapidly reline existing concrete structures suffering from environmental degradation and cracking.
CC provides a remediation solution which is fast, easy and cost effective to install.
Cost Saving: Repairing existing concrete infrastructure can prove costly, difficult and time-consuming, typically requiring the removal and replacement of existing concrete which is extremely difficult, requires heavy plant and a large site team.

         Improved Impermeability: CC joints can be thermally welded or sealed with mortar to effectively reduce water loss.
 Minimum Volume Loss: CC typically replaces 100-150mm of poured or sprayed concrete. Therefore re-lining a channel or reservoir with just 5, 8 or 13mm of CC minimizes capacity losses associated with conventional solutions.


6.2. SLOPE PROTECTION

FIG.6.2 Slope protection
(Source: www.concrete canvas.co.uk)

Landslides may occur due to shallow erosion orreduction of shear strength caused by seasonal rainfall, and may be triggered by anthropic activities such as adding excessive weight above the slope, digging at mid-slope or at the foot of the slope.
Concrete cloth can be used for slope stabilization and other erosion control applications such as temporary and permanent slope protection, retaining walls, boulder fences, low level bunds and river bank and dam revetments.

6.3. PIPELINE PROTECTION
Concrete cloth can be used as a coating for overland or underwater pipeline protection, providing a superior tough rock shield. In remote areas it can be used to coat steel pipe on site without expensive wet concrete application plants. It will set underwater and provide negative-buoyancy.


Fig. 6.3 Pipeline protection
(Source: www.concrete canvas.co.uk)

6.4. OUTFALL PROTECTION
Concrete Canvas (CC) has been used worldwide as an effective method of preventing surface erosion and scour associated with water run-off from culverts outlets, spillways and over-toppings.
CC provides an outfall protection solution which is fast, easy and cost effective to install.CC can be installed by personnel with minimal training. The material can be cut and fixed with basic hand-tools.  CC cannot be over-hydrated and there is no need for mixing, measuring or compacting on site.
CC has double the wear resistance of standard OPC and has passed over 200 cycles of freeze-thaw testing giving it a minimum design life of 50 years in a UK climate.
Fig 6.4 Outfall protection
(Source: www.concrete canvas.co.uk)

6.5. GROUND RESURFACING
Concrete cloth can be secured with ground anchors to rapidly create a concrete surface for flooring, pedestrian walkways or dust suppression.
Repairing existing concrete infrastructure can prove costly, difficult and time-consuming, typically requiring the removal and replacement of existing concrete which is extremely difficult, requires heavy plant and a large site team.

Fig. 6.5 Resurfacing
(Source: www.concrete canvas.co.uk)

6.6. MINING APPLICATIONS
Concrete cloth can be used as an alternative to poured or sprayed concrete or as a quick way of erecting strong permanent or temporary blast and vent structures and spall lining.
Trials have shown that CC typically provides cost savings of over 20% compared to conventional solutions.

Fig.6.6 Mining
(Source: www.concrete canvas.co.uk)

6.7. BUND LINING
Earth containment bunds can be quickly lined with concrete cloth to provide an efficient, chemically resistant alternative to concrete walling. Bund lining also called a bund wall, is a constructed retaining wall designed to prevent inundation or breaches from a known source. It is a secondary containment system commonly used to protect environments from spills where chemicals are stored. CC can be used for hard armour capping of earth bunds around petrochemical tank farms, munitions depots and flood defences. CC acts as an effective weed inhibitor, eliminating the maintenance required with grassed or earth bunds whilst providing a safe surface for trafficking.

6.8. GABION REINFORCEMENT/CAPPING
Fig.6.7 Capping
(Source: www.concrete canvas.co.uk)

        Gabion is a cage, cylinder, or box filled with rocks, concrete, or sometimes sand and soil for use in civil engineering, road building, and military applications.In a military context, earth- or sand-filled gabions are used to protect artillery crews from enemy fire.
       Concrete cloth can be used to cap or repair gabion walls to provide long-term protection and prevent FOD (Foreign Object Damage). CC helps prevent loss of fill if the geo-textile has degraded from UV exposure or weathering and securely ties together multi-level gabion walls preventing movement and extending their life by decades.
CC provides a gabion covering solution which is fast, easy and cost effective to install. Capping: CC prevents water ingress which can cause slump due to water saturation and the migration of fines.

6.9. DUST SUPPRESSION SYSTEM IN HELIPAD
Fig.6.8 Helipad
(Source: www.concrete canvas.co.uk)

The turbulent air currents created by the helicopter rotor wash drives loose soil particles into the air.
The airborne dust particles negatively impact humans and wildlife, including aquatic life and vegetation. The dust also increases vehicle, helicopter, and equipment wear and damage due to mechanical abrasion.
So the concrete cloth was used as a dust suppression surface around Helicopter Landing Sites.

CHAPTER-7
CASE STUDY

SHERSTON RAIL DITCH
         In June 2014, Concrete Canvas was used to line a drainage ditch located at the top of a railway embankment in Sherston, Wiltshire, UK. The works took place as part of the Great Western Electrification Programme (GWEP), which involves raising and replacing various bridges, upgrading tunnels and carrying out safety improvement work to parapets between London and Cardiff. In this instance, local rail bridges were being elevated which resulted in the need to remove a nearby aqueduct that couldn’t be re-positioned. The drainage channel was designed to replace this loss of water management capacity and to prevent slip of the embankment through surface erosion and saturation. 
           Site access was limited due to the close proximity of the rail line and plant was only accessible via rented farm space, so speed of install was paramount. Concrete Canvas® GCCM was specified due to its ease of and speed of install, which significantly reduced time on site and cost of access. With a fall of only 2mm, an unlined V ditch was deemed unsafe as ground and surface water would not drain correctly and cause risk of slip. Either an unlined ditch or a pipe work option would require regular and expensive maintenance, placing CC8 as the most cost-effective solution. Installation was carried out by BAM Nuttall with consultancy provided by Network rail in conjunction with ADAS (the Agricultural Development Advisory Service).
            Loose rock was removed from the invert so that there was intimate contact between the CC8 and the base of the ditch. Bulk rolls of CC8 were called off in staggered deliveries to site providing logistical flexibility in line with the rate of install. The bulk rolls were deployed from spreader beam equipment to maximize speed of install. The material was unrolled into the ditch transversely and cut to specific profile length.


Fig.7.1 Sherston rail ditch before lining
(Source: www.concrete canvas.co.uk)

Fig.7.2 Sherston rail ditch after lining
(Source: www.concrete canvas.co.uk)

CHAPTER-8
ADVANTAGES OF CONCRETE CLOTH

RAPID CONSTRUCTION
A 25sqm CCS can be deployed by 2 people in less than 1 hour and is ready to use in only 24 hours. The material can be hydrated by either spraying it or fully immersing it in water. Once hydrated, it remains workable for 2 hours and hardens to 80% of its final strength within 24 hours.

EASY TO USE
Dry concrete cloth can be cut or tailored using simple hand tools such as utility knives. The PVC side can be supplied with an adhesive backing and the fibrous side bonds well to concrete or brick surfaces when set. It can be easily repaired or upgraded using existing cement products.

FLEXIBLE
Concrete cloth can be easily nailed through before setting. It has good drape characteristics, allowing it to take the shape of complex surfaces including those with double curvature.

STRONG
The fiber reinforcement acts to prevent cracking, absorbs energy from impacts, and provides a stable failure mode.

FIREPROOF
Concrete cloth is a ceramic-based material and will not burn.

WATERPROOF
The PVC backing on one surface ensures that concrete cloth is completely waterproof.

ADAPTABLE
Concrete cloth is currently supplied on 1.2 m wide rolls but can be manufactured with a roll width of up to 5 m. The cloth can be produced in a range of thicknesses from 5 to 20 mm.

DURABLE
Concrete cloth is chemically resistant and will not degrade in ultraviolet light. They are far more durable than conventional soft skinned tents with a design life of over 10 years. 

ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY
The material can be reused and recycled.

EARTH BERMING 
The compressive structure of CCS has been modeled to be covered with sand or earth fill, to provide additional thermal mass and insulation providing excellent level of thermal performance.


CHAPTER-9
LIMITATIONS OF CONCRETE CLOTH

           Concrete cloth cannot be over hydrated and an excess of water is always recommended.
Jets of high pressure water should not be impacted directly onto the concrete cloth as this may wash a channel in the material.
           Concrete cloth has a working time of 1-2 hours after hydration. So CC cannot be moved once it has begun to set.
           Working time will be reduced in hot climates.
           If concrete cloth is not fully saturated, the set may be delayed and strength may get reduced.

CHAPTER-10
CONCLUSION

Concrete Cloth (CC) is a unique proprietary material. It is a time & material saving technique. It is very easy to place & handle. Concrete cloth is a thin, flexible, durable, water & fire proof concrete layer. CC allows concrete construction without the need for plant or mixing equipment. Concrete canvas reinforced by 3D spacer fabric with one solid outer textile substrate exhibited improved tensile behaviours.CC has a design life of 10 years and is significantly quicker and less expensive to install compared to conventional concrete. It is specially used, where the workmanship is very difficult and is mainly used in emergency works such as in military.

REFERENCES
1. V. Vedha Narayanan, International Journal on Applications in Civil and Environmental Engineering Volume 1: Issue 3: March 2015, pp 6-12. www.aetsjournal.com
2. Hrishikesh R. kane, Pratik D. Akarte, Roshan B. Akhude, P.S Randive. International Journal for Engineering Applications and Technology Volume 1, pp 2-7.
http://www.ijfeat.org/
3. Maqbool Akhtar, Rajendra Singh Dangi. International Journal for Scientific Research and Development Volume 3: Issue 01: 2015, pp 314-315.
www.ijsrd.com
4. F. Han et al. 3D spacer fabrics. Construction and Building Materials 65 (2014) 620–629
5. http://www.concretecanvas.com/
6. http://www.concreteinternational.com/
7. Armakan DM, Roye A. A study on the compression behavior of spacer fabrics designed for concrete applications. Fiber Polym 2009; 10(1):116–23.

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